## What is.

Sampling error is the difference between the sample values and the true population values, which results from the use of random sampling.

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A latent variable is a variable that is inferred using models from observed data. These can be inferred through a wide range of approaches.

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Feature engineering is the process of selecting and transforming variables when creating a predictive model using machine learning or statistical modeling

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Non-sampling error refers to any deviation between the results of a survey and the truth which are not caused by the random selecting of observations.

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Geographic map visualizations are a great way to show comparative values across countries, states, or regions. I'll show you how to make one in Q.

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Survey data processing is the manipulation or transformation of raw survey data into meaningful results which can be analyzed to answer a research question.

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A conversion rate is the percentage of people that move from one stage to the next stage in the process. It is often used to identify weak spots in a company's ...

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A model is a usable description of how a system is believed to work. It is a simplification of reality, with unnecessary detail excluded.

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Standard error is the estimated standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a parameter. It quantifies the uncertainty around a parameter.

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A price sensitivity meter is a set of survey questions that is used to work out how to set prices for products. It works out a framework for what people conside...

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Multidimensional scalling (MDS) is a technique used to visualize the distance between objects when the distance between pairs of objects are known.

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The chi-square test of homogeneity tests to see whether different columns (or rows) of data in a table come from the same population or not.

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A column chart is a data visualization where each category is represented by a rectangle with the height of the rectangle being proportional to the values.

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Overplotting is when the values or labels in a data visualization overlap, making the data visualization diffcult to read. Find out more.

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A bubble chart is a data visualization that displays multiple circles (bubbles) in a two-dimensional plot. They can be used to show three variables.

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The effective sample size is an estimate of the sample size required to achieve the same level of precision if that sample was a simple random sample.

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A labeled scatter plot is a data visualization that displays the values of two different variables, with text labels showing the meaning of each data point.

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A scatter plot is a chart that displays the values of two variables as points. The data for each point is represented by its position on the chart.

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A/B testing involves testing two different approaches to solving a problem - approach A or approach B and working out which is better according to the data.

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The chi-square test of independence tests to see whether there is a relationship between two categorical variables in a dataset.

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The R-Squared statistic quantifies the predictive accuracy of a statistical model. It is also known as the coefficient of determination and RÂ².

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The chi-square frequency test works out if two variable values are consistent with expectations and if a difference is statistically signficant.

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Survey quotas are the number of observations to meet a specified requirement. Learn about interlocking and non-interlocking survey quotas.

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Data filtering is the process of choosing a smaller part of your dataset and using that subset for viewng or analysis. It is usually temporary.

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Data measurement scales are classifications which indicate the types of mathematical operations that can be performed on the data.

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A crosstab is table showing the relationship between two or more variables. Crosstabs are useful for finding patterns and correlations in data.

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Dummy variables are variables that take values of 0 and 1, where the values indicate the presence or absence of something.

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A small multiple is a data visualization that consists of multiple charts arranged in a grid. This makes it easy to compare the entirety of the data.

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Logistic regression is a type of regression analysis used when the dependent variable is binary (i.e., has only two possible outcomes).

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D-error is a measure that quantifies how good a design is at extracting information from repsondents. I'll show you how to compute D-error, Bayesian D-error and...

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A correlation matrix is a handy way to visualize correlation coefficients between sets of variables. A correlation matrix is also used as an input for more adva...

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Deep learning is a subset of machine learning. Like other machine-learning techniques, deep learning creates a mapping from input data to a target outcome.

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Missing data can be structurally missing, missing completely at random, mising at random, or nonignorable (also known as missing not at random).

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Alternatives to a random sample include quota samples, convenience samples, volunteer samples, purporsive samples, and snowball/referral samples.

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Factor analysis and principal component analysis identify patterns in the correlations between variables. They are used to identify underlying variables.

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MaxDiff is a survey research technique for working out relative preferences for multiple items. It is also known as maximum difference or best-worst scaling.

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Spurious Correlation is when two variables falsely appear to be causally related, normally due to an unseen, third factor.

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Heteroscedasticity is a specific type of pattern in the residuals of a model where the variability for a subset of the residuals is much larger.

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The replication crisis is the growing belief that many scientific studies are unable to be reproduced. This could imply that significant theories are wrong.

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Statistics is a mathematical field which deals with quantitative data. Data science is a multidisciplinary field which deals with data in a range of forms.

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Data stacking is a way of organising data to find anomalies. Data stacking involves splitting a data set into smaller files and stacking the values for each var...

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Residuals in statistics or machine learning are the difference between an observed data value and a predicted data value. They are also known as errors.

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Metadata is data about data. This refers to not the data itself, but rather to any information that describes some aspect of the data.

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A decision tree is a diagram that shows how to make a prediction based on a series of questions. The responses determines which branch is followed next.

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In this post, I'll explain what random sampling is as well as all the different forms random sampling can occur in as well as an alternative to it.

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Functional data analysis is a collection of methods for analyzing data over a curve, surface or continuum. Find out when to use it here.

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Research is reproducible when the exact results of a study can be reproduced given the original code, data and software. Find out the benefits of reproducible r...

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Find out what replicable research is and why it is important for any study.

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What's the deal with missing data? In this post we'll explain what missing data is, why it is a problem and how you can handle it!

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Rebasing involves modifying a calculation by changing the sample (base) used in the calculation. Rebasing is commonly performed to remove ambiguous responses fr...

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String splitting is the process of breaking up a text string in a systematic way, so that the individual parts of the text can be processed. For example, a time...

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Correlation is usually defined as a measure of the linear relationship between two quantitative variables (e.g., height and weight). Often a slightly looser def...

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Data sorting is any process that involves arranging the data into some meaningful order to make it easier to understand, analyze or visualize.

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A random forest is an ensemble of decision trees. Like other machine-learning techniques, random forests use training data to learn to make predictions.

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Selection bias is an error in not ensuring random sampling. Learn more about the sources and examples of selection bias and how to avoid them.

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A distance matrix is a table that shows the distance between pairs of objects. Learn more about Distance Matrices in this educational deep-dive.

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Raw data typically refers to data tables where rows contains observations and columns represent a variable that describes some property of each observation.

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A p-value is quantitative summary of the evidence in favor or against a hypothesis of interest. It is computed using a statistical test.

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What are the Strengths and Weaknesses of Hierarchical Clustering? Learn more about pros, cons and alternatives to Hierarchical Clustering.

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Market segmentation typically involves forming groups of similar people. Segmentation variables are characteristics used to determine if they are similar.

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